Turkey (Turkiye Cumhuriyeti) is a secular state
with an authoritarian regime, although it is
constitution dates from 1982. Executive power is
held by the President, elected for a seven year
term of office by general election, and by the
Prime Minister, chosen from the Parliamentary
majority and responsible towards the deputies.
The present President is Ahmet Necdet Sezner, since
the 16th May 2000, and the Prime Minister is
Bülent Ecevit, since 11th January
legislative assembly, the National Assembly or
"Meclis" is made up of 550 deputies who are elected
by direct general election for a five year term of
The Presidential Council is made up of 4 members of
the National Security Council (the heads of the
three armies and the police force).
Voting age is
21, the voting system is one man one
is made up of 73 provinces, called "il" or "iller"
historical outline :
- 330 :
Byzantium, rebaptised Constantinople, becomes the
capital of the Roman Empire (under Constantine)
- 1453 : Mehmet Ali seizes Constantinople
- 1520 : Suleyman 1st (1520-1566), the Ottoman
Empire's greatest sultan comes to the throne
- 1908 : revolution of the Young Turks
- 1919 : Kemal Ataturk proclaims the independence
and the union of Turkey in its national limits
- 1920 : Treaty of Sèvre and the abolition
of the sultanate in 1922
- 20.10.1923, Turkey becomes a Republic, with
Mustapha Kemal Ataturk as President
- 12.9.1980, Suleyman Demirel is overthrown by
General Kenan Evren during a military coup.The
latter becomes President until 1989
- 6 .11.1982, return to democracy. Turgut Ozal wins
the elections with the Mother Country Party and
becomes Prime Minister.
- 9.11.1989, Mr Turgut Ozal is elected
- 20.11.1991, Mr Suleyman Demirel is nominated to
the post of Prime Minister
- 17.04.1993, death of Turgut Ozal. 16th May Mr
Demirel is elected President. Me Tansu Ciller is
named Prime Minister on 13th June.
- 6.03.1995, The Greek veto against Turkey joining
the European Union is withdrawn
- 20.09. 1995, Me Tansu Ciller resigns
- 24.12.1995, victory for Mr Erbakan, from the
after these elections the government coalition
broke up when Tansu Ciller left the party. The
country was without a government for seven months.
The Islamic party (Refah Partisi) came out of this
conflict much stronger.
Mr Erbakan forms a new government
- Bülent Ecevit, the leader of the Social
Democratic Party (DSP) is Prime Minister since the
11th January 1999.
Turkey is situated in Asia Minor. It is
surrounded by the Russian republics and Bulgaria,
Iran in the east, Irak and Syria in the south. Its
natural northern frontier is the Black Sea.
The length of its borders in kms : coastline 5200,
Armenia 268, Azerbaidjan 9, Bulgaria 240, Georgia
252, Greece 206, Irak 331, Iran 499, Syria 822.
surface area is 780,580 sq. kms. for a population
of 63 million inhabitants. Its geographical relief
and its soil makes it rather unfertile.
maritime zone stretches for 6 nautical miles into
the Aegean Sea, 12 nautical miles into the Black
Sea and the Mediterranean.
Economy & statistics
The major decrease in the economic growth since
1998 was prolonged by a recession in 1999 and made
even worse by the August earthquake. The effects of
this, added to a weak internal demand, an
unfavourable external environment and structural
problems have put the country in a difficult
situation. On the other hand, the rebuilding of the
disaster area should contribute to the activity in
2000, but will certainly increase the
The level of
public debt is also worrying, particularly since it
is financed by short term loans in the main and
generates strong inflation. The perspective of a
speeding up in privatizing and of structural
reforms which have been delayed due to political
instability over the last years, should help to
unblock international credits and hopefully improve
spite of the commercial deficits being covered by
tourist revenues and private transfers, external
pressures remain strong. On one side the debt
charges are high, nearly a third of export
revenues, and on the other the financial needs of
the country are assured by very volatile capital,
most of which is attracted by the high interest
context Turkey remains very vulnerable to the risk
of a loss of confidence in its investors. A
budgetary or political crisis would restrict the
available finances and could cause a foreign
exchange crisis. The banking sector is fragile, too
preoccupied with an investment logic : the banks
loan primarily to the State to finance the public
debts instead of supported private activity. At the
end of November a confidence crisis did in fact
take place, shaking up the banking system and
setting off an outward flight of capital. The lack
of liquid assets forced the Central Bank to dig
into its reserves for over 45 billion francs. This
financial crisis confirmed how necessary it is to
reform the whole banking system and to privatize
companies and public banks.
is fairly diversified and has an important
developement potential (a market of 63 million
inhabitants) which is strengthened by the
perspective of joining the EU.
aided both politically and financially by the
international community, but the Kurdish and
Cypriot problems, which remain unsolved, expose the
country to criticism from its allies. The
traditionally tense relations with Greece have
radically improved following the earthquakes which
hit both countries.
improvement in purchasing power for a large part of
the population and by the opening up to European
exports with Union customs agreements, the demand
for consumer goods has gone up and is benefitting
from the developement in the distribution
1996 when the customs agreements between the
European Union and Turkey came into effect,
European industrial products (but not agricultural
products) are exempt from duties and taxes when
they enter Turkey. Europe has reduced to zero
customs duties on imported Turkish products since
scheme and health and welfare systems were modified
at the end of 1999 to help reduce the public debt
and to halt the high inflation which is such a
handicap to the economy.
of trade (billions $)
balance (billions $)
debt (billions $)
which is short term debt (billions
National Product 1999
power parity (PPP)
per capita per annum
with PPP +$30000pa
600 000 = 12.5%
with PPP +$15000pa
790 000 = 45%
with PPP -$5000 pa
900 000 = 15%
Division of the GDP by activity sector :
Agriculture : 17.6%
Industry : 16.1%
Mining : 9.4%
Services : 57.0%
Agriculture Essentially orientated towards
the domestic market, Turkish agriculture has a
large and diversified production : wheat, barley,
olives and tea for example are produced for the
consumer market. Tobacco and cotton feed the
The economic significance of agriculture is still
considerable because it employs nearly 40% of the
labour force. However it is not very profitable and
only manages to continue with heavy State
Industries & mining Important needs in
infrastructure, growth in the tourist sector and
the rapid industrialization founded on the growth
of sectors of processing industries like
foodstuffs, textiles and cars, mean that the
markets for equipment and facilities are also
growing. More precisely, in the following domains :
electricity, textiles, car manufacturing,
foodstuffs and hotels and restaurants.
Turkish industry also represents an important
market for prime materials and semi-finished
products, particularly for chemical and iron and
steel products as well as in certain specialized
sectors (leather, skins, yarns, material).
Textiles remains the main industrial sector, but
car manufacturing is increasing and the foodstuff
sector is very dynamic.
A stabilizing programme, started in 1999, was set
up to organize a more stable environment : Turkish
private industrials are active, but the country
still doesn't have enough foreign investment to
help it to modernize its production on a big enough
In 2001 the
serious energy problems that Turkey has been going
through should improve. The pumping of Iranian gas
will start in July in spite of American objections.
Azerbaidjan and Georgia should start sharing their
excess electricity with Turkey before the end of
France is Turkey's fourth biggest trade
partner. French exports are made up of over 90%
industrial goods with high added value. The strong
presence of three French car manufacturers,
especially Renault, which is the biggest foreign
investor in Turkey in any sector, makes up most of
this movement, as well as sales of distribution
materials and electrical controls, refined petrol
products, chemical products for industrial use and
The telecommunications sector is one of the most
flourishing, due to the developement of the mobile
phone. On the other hand, the country is still
behind in Internet users.
Population : 63,451,000, the total population
density is 82 inhabitants per km2.
There are over ten million inhabitants in
Population breakdown :
0-14 year olds : 29.53%
15-64 year olds : 65%
65 years and over : 5.47%
Working age population (15-65 ) : 41 million, of
which 30 million are working (55% in industry and
Life expectancy : 69.26 years
Urban population : 72.86%
Developement (latest available statistics)
demographic growth 1997-2015 (%) : +1.2
infant mortality (%) : 4
energy consumption per capita TOE : 1.05
population without drinking water (% pop) : 51
population without sanitary installations (% pop) :
n° of doctors per 1000 inhabitants : 1.1
telephone lines per 1000 inhabitants : 250
mobile telephones per 1000 inhabitants : 26
private cars per 1000 inhabitants : 59
n° of computers per 1000 inhabitants :
adult illiteracy (%) : 17
secondary schooling/age group (%) : 56
graduates/age group (%) : 18
- 80% Turks,
- 20% Kurds
minorities are all sources of conflict, whether
they are Kurdish or Armenians on Turkish territory
or Turks living in Bulgaria or Cypris.
Turkish, Kurdish, Arab.
For business, English and German are currently
Turkey was the core of the Ottoman Empire and
several populations speak Turkish all over the
East. Turkish is spoken by 150 million people in
The main religion is Islam.
Sunnites Muslims : 99.8%
Christians : 0.2%
measures & voltage
The metric system is in use. Electricity : 220
volts with European style plugs.
1 Turkish pound (TRL) = 0.00001 French
1 franc = 137,380 Turkish pounds
1 euro = 972,210 Turkish pounds
credit cards : Visa, American Express and
Mastercard are accepted in the larger
There is no limit to profits, invested capital
and eventual appreciations being repatriated.
Transfering money presents no difficulties. The
pound is convertible and there is no exchange
Ankara (Ancyre) : The capital : museum of
Anatolian civilizations, tomb of Ataturk
(1881-1938) the founder of modern Turkey.
Istanbul (Constantinople) : Ancient Byzantine and
Ottoman capital, Istanbul is build on the west bank
of the Bosphorus, on a detroit which separates
Europe from Asia. The city is also cut in half by a
small sea inlet, the Golden Horn.
Bursa (Brousse) : Green city, the hometown of
Karaguz, the Turkish 'Punch'. A spa which was the
capital for a while, with the tombs of sultans and
gardens : Green mausoleum, Osman's mausoleum
(founder of the Osman Empire 1281-1923).
Izmir (Smyrne) : Opulant and haughty, to the south
and the north of the town stretches the 2800 kms of
the Aegean coast. Beautiful synagogue, gymnasium
bounded by the River Pactole.
The climate is temperate, mild and
Mediterranean. The best seasons to visit Turkey are
spring and autumn as summer is often too hot,
especially on the high plateau in the interior.
Winter is cold and it snows in the centre of the
country and freezes in the east.
temperatures (max/min) :
........F .......M .......A .........M ..........J
...........J ..........A ...........S ..........O
................8/3 ....9/2 .....11/3 ....16/7
....21/12 ...25/16 ...28/18 ....28/19 ....24/16
...20/13 ...15/9 ....11/5
...10/4 ....12/5 ....15/8 ....19/13 ...23/17
...26/20 ....26/20 ....23/17 ...20/14 ..17/10
....4/-4 ....5/-3 ....11/0 ....17/4 ....22/9
....27/13 ....30/15 ....30/15 ....26/11 ....20/7
& animals Scorpions. Mosquitoes from March
to November, which are very active after nightfall.
They are more numerous on the south coast and in
the centre of the country.
15 - Working in the country
You should take Turkish lessons, or improve
your level. The quality of job you would like to
have may depend on how well you speak the
With a French or international company
If your employer is a French or international
company you don't have to worry about formalities.
Usually the administrative services deal with all
the formalities concerning the expatriate staff.
Unless you are the only representative of your
company in the country (sales representative, or in
charge of a liaising office ...), in this case you
will have to deal with the formalities
Preparing for your departure and looking for a
You can start searching for information by writing
to French associations established in the country,
economic expansion services, commercial services of
foreign banks in France and French banks
The French consulate usually has a service dealing
with jobs and training, student grants and
reinsertion in France, and they can put you in
touch with local enterprises who are willing to
accept French personnel.
(See also in the Practical Guide for the
The French Chamber of Commerce also offers
information about the job market, the most dynamic
sectors of the economy, and edits a bulletin for
French companies and local members. You could
publish a job application in this bulletin.
The Trade Commission in Turkey, or the CFCE in
Paris can furnish you with a list of French
companies established in Turkey.
Documents about the country are usually available
in the cultural service of the Turkish Embassy in
You can however prepare your trip in a more precise
manner by making a personal appointment with the
Franco-Turkish Chamber of Commerce in order to
complete your information and get professional
While you are hunting for information you could
contact companies directly by sending a spontaneous
candidacy proposing your services.
The international departments of the Chambers of
Commerce and Industry often have information about
the country available. Directories and useful
dossiers from the country can be helpful in getting
information on sectors of activity and the local
Where to find job offers :
In the French press (Le Monde, Le France Soir,
Figaro, Moniteur du Bâtiment,...) for French
companies sending people abroad.
international press, in nearly all the bigger
dailies there exists a page or a selection of job
offers (The European, The Guardian, Vacature,
Coriere della Sera, The Geneva Tribunal ..)
Leading recruitment bureaus in Europe, and interim
companies sometimes offer international jobs.
There are several data banks specializing in job
offers abroad on Internet which are easily
Writing your CV and covering letter :
Your dossier is a determining element towards being
recruited, it is the first step towards obtaining
The CV should be very clear, typewritten,
detailled, preferably written in English and it
should be accompanied by a handwritten covering
letter. Certain countries do not accord much
importance to handwriting, but it is advisable to
write the letter by hand whichever country it is
If the company is French or the subsidiary of a
French company, the CV and the covering letter
should still be written in the language of the
Don't forget to attach a recent photo, preferably
one where you are smiling.
Your CV should be detailled, and have the
addresses and phone numbers of ex-employers on it
so that the company can easily verify the main
points of your candidacy. This can save you from
sending a pile of photocopies and documents with
it. You can always present these documents later
during an interview if necessary.
If you are thinking of sending a false CV, you
should know that a study from the Florian Mantione
Institute shows that 45% of the employers check up
on CVs, that 34% of the candidates are eliminated
during this verification and that 60% of the
verifications are made with the previous
Whatever your reasons for 'adapting' your CV to
suit the ad, be warned that it won't help you
during the interview and could even cause you
The questions to ask yourself before an
What exactly is the job?
What is the length of the contract?
Is it for the whole family or with bachelor
What kind of life will you have locally?
Have you thought about when you get back, how you
will manage financially to fit in again?
Do you have the necessaries qualities to be an
Qualities you need to succeed :
emotional stability (so you can react quickly
in any situation)
autonomy (you can make decisions on your own in any
being mobile and being available for your job,
being able to relocate quickly
being good at meeting people (don't forget that the
expatriate is also an ambassador for his country
whether in his professional or his social life.
being adaptable (you can easily adapt to different
cultures, climates and life styles. )
being able to accept and understand different
cultures and cultural differences
tolerance and respect of other people's way of life
and way of living should be a natural part of your
Your family and recruiting :
Your partner should have the same ambitions as
you. It is often an important factor in choosing an
In fact some recruitment bureaus or big firms when
they are recruiting, specially for long term
projects, insist on having an interview with the
wife to check that there are no problems in the
couple which could get worse abroad and maybe
disturb the mission.
Companies often propose that the whole family goes
together so that a good family balance is kept.
During the recruiting :
Punctuality and precision are appreciated
everywhere. Be on time for your
dressed for your interview, whatever kind of job
you are trying for. Your appearance will weigh with
interviews are often very short but can last
several hours if your candidacy is interesting,
depending on the post offered, and if you have to
do any psychotechnical (graphological analysis) or
not to appear pretentious about your know-how and
don't exaggerate your professional
that nowadays the job market is a chronic problem
nearly all over the world, so take an interview
appointment seriously, jobs are not easy to come
your real competence, your ease of adaption, your
mobility, your ability to work in a team, your
readiness to pool your experience.
The company and the expatriate :
A lot of countries abroad like to have, and to
show that they have, expatriates on their
International personnel often bring in experience
and knowledge which can be very advantageous for a
Salaries - Salary requirements :
If the candidate doesn't know the prospective
country, it isn't always easy to negotiate a
salary, especially if the amount has already been
mentionned on the ad.
However, there is nothing to stop you from showing
your previous salary and from discussing the salary
offered. The recruiting agent or the employer may
appreciate knowing what for you is the minimum.
The standard of living that you find abroad is not
always similar to the one you know in your own
country and sometimes if the salary is much higher
you will find that the cost of living is also.
This is one of the reasons, and there are several,
including social security conditions, why it is
better to go abroad with a French company.
French companies sending people overseas budget for
differences in the cost of living. They can
reassure the expatriate that his purchasing power
will at least be the same as in France.
The 'basic French salary' can be paid either in
France or abroad, it is usually a choice, and an
allowance is paid for living expenses
(accomodation, food,...) This compensation is based
on the cost of living in the country.
(see the page in the expatriate guide)
If you are employed locally you will have to pay
taxes in the country.
If you have an international contract your salary
can be negotiated free of taxes.
In some countries income tax is deducted at source
by the company.
Accomodation - company car - other fringe
It is nearly impossible to negotiate for a company
house if you are employed locally. Getting a car
depends on your job and your level in the
In a local company it will be very difficult to
negotiate a paid return ticket to France every
There again, if you are an expatriate working for a
French company you will get fringe benefits, a
house, car, travel allowance, return flights to
Usually international contracts give 15 days leave
in France every 3 months.
Working conditions :
These are the local ones with all the attenuating
advantages and disadvantages if you are working for
a local company.
The expatriate is often considered as an immigrant
and has to deal himself with the local
On the administrative side the expatriate does not
have to worry about the formalities concerning the
police, customs, immigration, income tax, visa or
consular declaration. French or European companies
abroad always have an administrative department
which completes all the formalities for its
personnel and deals with any problems which could
Foreign companies remain subject to the laws of the
country in which they are working.
Attitude towards the foreign investor :
All foreign investment, as well as all transfer of
technologies should be the object of an
authorization from the General Direction of Foreign
Capital of the Under-secretary of the State
Treasury. There is no sector-related restriction.
All the sectors are open to foreign capital and the
administrative steps are fairly easy. The foreign
investor can choose between an agency, creating a
subsidiary in the form of a SA or a Ltd company, or
take shares in a Turkish company which already
exists. The amount invested cannot be less than
50,000 dollars. There is no limit to the percentage
of foreign shareholding.
Import - export
It is strongly advisable to work with a letter
of credit when you first start business with a new
client. It is preferable to work through a foreign
bank or a major Turkish bank, but Turkish companies
usually want to work with their own bank. Letters
of credit, realizable by acceptance are the most
used. However, this type of payment is expensive,
so payment against documents or against merchandise
is often prefered. It nevertheless involves more
risk for the exporter, and this kind of payment is
recommended once a business relationship has been
Payment on delivery is not done in Turkey. Your
identity card is sufficient for a stay of up to
three months. Longer than that you will need to get
a residents permit from one of the central police
stations or the Office for Foreigners.
If you drive to Turkey you will need to have a
valid passport with you.
A visa is not necessary.
In the east of the country : entry to certain zones
of Turkey which are not tourist zones and which are
controlled by the army, are forbidden.
The products are imported for 80% of the
country's health needs, making this a centre of
international competition. The health system is run
by the State, so the main equipment buyers are
Vaccinations : nothing is obligatory
It is advisable to drink bottled water, checking
that the caps are sealed.
By plane : from Paris flight time is 3 hours to
Istanbul, Izmir, Dalaman and Antalya. Count on 4
hours for Ankara.
There are about 40 regular or charter flights from
France a week.
Air France or Turkish Airlines
Istanbul Airlines have flights Paris/Istanbul every
Thursday and Sunday. (tel 01 42 46 00 89)
The tour operators which specialize in Turkey are
Maxi (01 43 12 85 85), Marmara and Pacha Tours.
By rail or road : since the war in Yugoslavia, the
rail and road distances are long and the travelling
By boat : boats are not frequent and tend to be
overloaded from Greece or Italy.
Internal transport :
Plane : internal flights are very cheap. Be careful
: the arrivals and departures board is marked in
Bus, Trams or underground : All these are
operational in Istanbul.
Trains : The railway network is being renovated.
There will soon be a TGV between Istanbul and
Coaches, collective taxis : The coaches with their
varying degrees of comfort, are more practical on
the main road axes than the train. Collective taxis
are little buses with a lantern 'dolmus'
which go around the villages on a fixed itinerary.
They drop you off wherever you want. They only go
though when they are full.
Cars/Taxis : You should preferably reserve your
rented car from France. Like that you are sure to
have a choice. The best means of transport in
Istanbul is the taxi.
Others : To cross the Dardanelles take a ferry at
Gallipoli (every 2 hours) or at Canakkale (every
hour). Between Istanbul and Izmir there also exists
stops (during the high season) at the main sea
The road network has greatly improved since 1994.
The best road maps are the ones from the Tourist
Office which are more often up-to-date than others
(they are quickly out of date), but be careful as
they have very few details. Take both kind of maps
Traffic is very dense in Istanbul, there are
constant traffic jams.
Time difference with France : + 1 hour all year
You can telephone from the post office using
tokens or a meter system. These "centres of Turkish
life" are often open at night.
To phone Turkey from France : Dial 00 90 + the town
code + n° of your correspondent
Ankara : 312
Istanbul : 212 (western bank) or 216 (eastern
To phone France from Turkey : dial 00 33+
It costs less to phone France from Turkey than vice
Istanbul : the Mustafa Kemal Ataturk airport is 20
kms out of town. It takes between 30 and 45 minutes
to get there depending on the traffic
Ankara : the airport is 30 kms out of town
The price of a taxi to town is 145 FF
tax is not included in the price of the airticket.
It costs about 220 FF.
It is necessary to have your driving licence and
your credit card to rent a car.
Avis is represented in all the main towns in
Telephone n° of the central reservation office
: 20 216 454 1111
Some other agencies
Adana : 322 4350476/322 4533045
Ankara : airport : 312 3980315, town 312
Antalya : airport 242 3303073/08, town 242
Bodrum : 252 3162333,airport 252 5230201/1542
Istanbul : 212 2412917, 216 4918701/02, airport 212
Izmir : airport 232 2742172/74, 0232 3422020
Marmaris : 256 6144600
All Avis cars
are completely equipped, have done less than 15,000
kms and have an average age of 3 months. The
vehicles are carefully prepared and checked between
each rental using a procedure containing 7
obligatory control points. The cars are rented with
a full tank.
Renting from Avis automatically means that the car
passengers, renter and/or driver are covered by a
third party insurance as well as an insurance
covering repatriation and the immobilization of the
vehicule in case of an accident.
You can reserve a car :
- from your travel agent
- from the international reservation centre at 0
820 05 05 05
- or from any Avis agency
Avis has an interactive network worldwide, a client
can reserve a car instantly from anywhere in the
We recommend that you pay your rental using your
accredited Avis card or with another credit card
accepted by Avis : American Express, Visa,
Through a simple free membership system, Avis gives
identity and/or payment cards, which are a real
help for a rapid and efficient service.
No on-line payment, you can pay Avis directly at
the agency when you return the car
RAPID : Avis has the quickest car rental
reservation service on the web
ECONOMICAL : The cheapest rates on the market are
available on the Avis microsite
COMPLETE : You can rent a car anywhere in the
The Avis network : 5000 agencies in 172 countries,
is now on-line!
EFFICIENT : Find your town (you don't have to fill
in the country), enter the date and click on
PRACTICAL : You only have to fill in 4 boxes and
you will receive an e-mail confirming the
You can even rent a vehicle at the last minute just
round the corner or ... on the other side of the
Hotels & restaurants
Istanbul has a large range of hotels and palaces
which are excellent value for money.
Towers : 427 rooms, of which 18 are suites, top
luxury with a view on the Bosphorus
: 390 elegant rooms of which 29 are
Seasons : tel 00 90 212 638 82 00, near the Blue
Mosque, Sainte Sofia and the Topkapi
The Bosphorus : tel 00 90 212 259 61 01
Sultan : Tel 00 90 212 520 93 23
- Hyatt : 00
90 212 225 70 00
- Pera Palas
: tel 00 90 212 251 45 60
- Turkuaz :
tel 212 518 18 07 pretty 19th century house with a
garden and an Ottoman well
- Kybele :
tel 212 511 77 66 an ancient yali (house of a
- Empress Zoe
: tel 212 518 25 04 hotel made in an ancient
reservoir next to the Cagologlu hammam.
- Sheraton :
tel 00 90 312 468 54 54
- Hilton :
tel 00 90 312 468 28 88
- Otel Huma :
27 rooms, of which 3 are suites
Termal : 211 rooms with 3 suites
Eat in the meyhane (taverns)Cicek
Pasaji et Balik Pasaji, in the Flower
passage, opposite the Galatasaray school. Both
specialize in traditional cooking.
Haci Baba restaurant : specialities which
are always attractively presented, delicious
desserts and a pleasant terrace. Istiklal Cad
Take a suit and tie for business meetings and chic
Light clothing for June - September, a sweater for
Don't wear provocative clothing : shorts or low-cut
dresses. To visit a mosque, both men and women have
to cover their legs and shoulders and take off
Winter is cold and rainy.
Public Holidays :
1st January : New Year
23rd April : Childrens' Day
30th August : Victory Day
29th October : Republic Day (declaration of the
republic, 29th October 1923).
7th November : Constitution Day (1982).
Also religious Muslim holidays, Ramadan.
Opening times :
Opening hours of local administrations in Ankara :
8h30 to 12h30 and 13h30 to 17h
in Istanbul : 9h to 18h
Opening hours of companies in Ankara : 9h to12h30
and 14h to 18h
in Istanbul : 9h to 18h
You should be careful, there is a certain level of
Don't accept any package without having inspected
the contents, you could risk getting mixed up in a
The hotels and the casinos give a third more than
the banks which are not in a hurry to keep their
rates up to date as they fluctuate at an amazing
speed. The best place to change money is in the
There are more and more cash distributors.
Banks are open from 8h30 to 12h and 13h30 to 17h
from Monday to Friday.
No French bank has an agency in Ankara or
Banque du Bosphore
8 rue Euler
Tel 01 56 89 90 90 Fax 01 47 20 02 36
There are several schools in the country.
- Guide Bleu.
- Guide Michelin.
- Guides Turquie (collection Petite
- Discovery Guide to Eastern Turkey and the Black
Sea Coast (from Michael Haag Limited, PO Box 369,
London NW3 4DP, England).
- Aziyadé, Fantôme d'Orient et les
Désenchantées by Pierre Loti
- Si j'oublie Constantinople by A Londres
Businss : (in French)
- Exporter : coll. "L'Essentiel d'un
marché", CFC3 2000
- Kompass Turquie : KOTUR2000
-Annuaire des implantations françaises :
French Trade Commission in Istanbul Ref E14999-99L
- Les procédures d'importations et le
transport international : French Trade Commission
in Istanbul, Ref A9900031A
- Annuaire des 100 premières entreprises
industrielles du secteur agroalimentaire : French
Trade Commission in Istanbul, Ref A10783-99L
The best way to go into the town is by the
Bosphorus, preferably with a dolmus (sea
If you apply to the foundation which manages the
restoring of the yali, these ancient summer
residences of the Ottoman empire notables, built in
pine or in oak wood, you can visit the most
sumptuous ones : the Kibrisli yali, the Ostrorog
yali where Pierre Loti slept, the Sadullah yali
where the interior is as beautiful as the most
In the cafés which edge the roads old men
sit behind their glasses of rosemary or mint tea
playing at cards, with their jackets hanging above
their heads, holding the end between their gold
teeth they suck on their hookahs which are filled
with their favourite mixture : jurak or
tombak. Time stands still.
In the mahalli hamam (the local baths) the
men put themselves in the hands of the giants on
duty who knead them with a dry glove on the warm
marble slabs and then wash them down with cold
water. It is in the steam of the hammam that
tongues loosen and real conversation takes
Visit the mosques, the Topkapi palace museum, the
blue mosque, the only one with six minarets, which
was built in the beginning of the 17th century by
the famous architect Sinan.
Foça (Phocea). The birth place of the
founders of Marseilles. The vestiges of Troy are
only a few kilometers away.
Kusadasi. Known for its Club Med which is near the
antique sites of Ephese, Priene, Milet, the temple
of Didymes (oracle of Apollo). Lovely hotels.
Marmaris. Beautiful beaches of Belek, Kas, Jemer on
the Lycian coast
Antalya (Attaleia). Minaret, Hadrien's door,
Side and Alanya. To the east of Antalya, a
fortified town built in the centre of Hellenistic
ruins, superb museum.
Silikfe (Seleucie). Interesting excursions to the
citadel of Seleucia, the abyss of Hell (Cehennen)
and of Paradise (Cennet), the ruins of Kanlidivani,
the sea castles of Anamur, Corycos and Kizkalesi,
the port of Mersin.
(Tarsus); Adana and Antakya (Antioche). Pilgrimage
site of the voyages of Saint Paul. In Tarse: the
church of the Kings of Armenia, which has become a
mosque. Adana is the region of the castles of
Cilicia. Antakya has one of the most beautiful
mosaic museums in the world.
Pamukkale (Hierapolis) : tourist region
Konya (Iconium) : tourist region of the Egridir
Cappadocia : a very popular tourist region : Church
of Tokali, underground cities
Edirne (Andrinople) and Turkish Thrace : Mosque of
Edirne, the imperial mosque built by the same
architect as the Blue mosque in Istanbul, battle
fields of the Dardanelles between Gallipoli and
Trabzon (Trebizonde) and the Black Sea. Port
forming a trio with Sinop and Samsun, traffic with
Ski runs on the Uludag, the byzantine walls at
(see also "Main Towns")
Handicrafts : carpets, jewellery, copper
objects, ceramics, leather
Useful Addresses in France
16, avenue de Lamballe
Tel 01 45 25 29 63
102, avenue des Champs-Elysées
Tel. : 01 45 62 78 68
La maison de
8, Boudreau 75009 Paris
Tel. : 01 42 80 04 74
Addresses in Turkey
Embassy in Ankara
Tel 00 90 312 468 11 54
Consulate in Istanbul
Tel 00 90 212 293 24 60
Commission in Ankara
Turan emeksiz Sok, n° 3
Tel 00 90 312 428 3175-78 Fax 00 90 312 4682439
Internet : www.dree.org/turquie
e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Commission in Istanbul
Odakule Is Merkezi
Istiklal Cad. n° 284-288
Tel 00 90 212 2435338 Fax 00 90 212