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Political Status
Turkey (Turkiye Cumhuriyeti) is a secular state with an authoritarian regime, although it is parliamentary.

The present constitution dates from 1982. Executive power is held by the President, elected for a seven year term of office by general election, and by the Prime Minister, chosen from the Parliamentary majority and responsible towards the deputies.
The present President is Ahmet Necdet Sezner, since the 16th May 2000, and the Prime Minister is Bülent Ecevit, since 11th January 1999.

The legislative assembly, the National Assembly or "Meclis" is made up of 550 deputies who are elected by direct general election for a five year term of office.
The Presidential Council is made up of 4 members of the National Security Council (the heads of the three armies and the police force).

Voting age is 21, the voting system is one man one vote.

The country is made up of 73 provinces, called "il" or "iller" in plural.

Short historical outline :

- 330 : Byzantium, rebaptised Constantinople, becomes the capital of the Roman Empire (under Constantine)
- 1453 : Mehmet Ali seizes Constantinople
- 1520 : Suleyman 1st (1520-1566), the Ottoman Empire's greatest sultan comes to the throne
- 1908 : revolution of the Young Turks
- 1919 : Kemal Ataturk proclaims the independence and the union of Turkey in its national limits
- 1920 : Treaty of Sèvre and the abolition of the sultanate in 1922
- 20.10.1923, Turkey becomes a Republic, with Mustapha Kemal Ataturk as President
- 12.9.1980, Suleyman Demirel is overthrown by General Kenan Evren during a military coup.The latter becomes President until 1989
- 6 .11.1982, return to democracy. Turgut Ozal wins the elections with the Mother Country Party and becomes Prime Minister.
- 9.11.1989, Mr Turgut Ozal is elected President.
- 20.11.1991, Mr Suleyman Demirel is nominated to the post of Prime Minister
- 17.04.1993, death of Turgut Ozal. 16th May Mr Demirel is elected President. Me Tansu Ciller is named Prime Minister on 13th June.
- 6.03.1995, The Greek veto against Turkey joining the European Union is withdrawn
- 20.09. 1995, Me Tansu Ciller resigns
- 24.12.1995, victory for Mr Erbakan, from the Islamic party.

Two months after these elections the government coalition broke up when Tansu Ciller left the party. The country was without a government for seven months. The Islamic party (Refah Partisi) came out of this conflict much stronger.

- 7.06.1996, Mr Erbakan forms a new government
- Bülent Ecevit, the leader of the Social Democratic Party (DSP) is Prime Minister since the 11th January 1999.

Geographical situation
Turkey is situated in Asia Minor. It is surrounded by the Russian republics and Bulgaria, Iran in the east, Irak and Syria in the south. Its natural northern frontier is the Black Sea.
The length of its borders in kms : coastline 5200, Armenia 268, Azerbaidjan 9, Bulgaria 240, Georgia 252, Greece 206, Irak 331, Iran 499, Syria 822.

Its total surface area is 780,580 sq. kms. for a population of 63 million inhabitants. Its geographical relief and its soil makes it rather unfertile.

Turkey's maritime zone stretches for 6 nautical miles into the Aegean Sea, 12 nautical miles into the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.

Economy & statistics
The major decrease in the economic growth since 1998 was prolonged by a recession in 1999 and made even worse by the August earthquake. The effects of this, added to a weak internal demand, an unfavourable external environment and structural problems have put the country in a difficult situation. On the other hand, the rebuilding of the disaster area should contribute to the activity in 2000, but will certainly increase the inflation.

The level of public debt is also worrying, particularly since it is financed by short term loans in the main and generates strong inflation. The perspective of a speeding up in privatizing and of structural reforms which have been delayed due to political instability over the last years, should help to unblock international credits and hopefully improve this situation.

Also, in spite of the commercial deficits being covered by tourist revenues and private transfers, external pressures remain strong. On one side the debt charges are high, nearly a third of export revenues, and on the other the financial needs of the country are assured by very volatile capital, most of which is attracted by the high interest rates.

In this context Turkey remains very vulnerable to the risk of a loss of confidence in its investors. A budgetary or political crisis would restrict the available finances and could cause a foreign exchange crisis. The banking sector is fragile, too preoccupied with an investment logic : the banks loan primarily to the State to finance the public debts instead of supported private activity. At the end of November a confidence crisis did in fact take place, shaking up the banking system and setting off an outward flight of capital. The lack of liquid assets forced the Central Bank to dig into its reserves for over 45 billion francs. This financial crisis confirmed how necessary it is to reform the whole banking system and to privatize companies and public banks.

The economy is fairly diversified and has an important developement potential (a market of 63 million inhabitants) which is strengthened by the perspective of joining the EU.

Turkey is aided both politically and financially by the international community, but the Kurdish and Cypriot problems, which remain unsolved, expose the country to criticism from its allies. The traditionally tense relations with Greece have radically improved following the earthquakes which hit both countries.

With an improvement in purchasing power for a large part of the population and by the opening up to European exports with Union customs agreements, the demand for consumer goods has gone up and is benefitting from the developement in the distribution sector.

Since early 1996 when the customs agreements between the European Union and Turkey came into effect, European industrial products (but not agricultural products) are exempt from duties and taxes when they enter Turkey. Europe has reduced to zero customs duties on imported Turkish products since 1974.

The pension scheme and health and welfare systems were modified at the end of 1999 to help reduce the public debt and to halt the high inflation which is such a handicap to the economy.

Main Economic Indicators


economic growth (%)


inflation (%)


public debt/GNP (%)


exports (billions $)


imports (billions $)


balance of trade (billions $)


current balance (billions $)


external debt (billions $)


of which is short term debt (billions $)


debt charges/exports (%)


General information

Gross National Product 1999

224.36 billion $

GNP per capita

3480 dollars

Purchasing power parity (PPP)

6300 dollars

GNP growth 1990-1997

+2.3% per capita per annum

Household with PPP +$30000pa

1 600 000 = 12.5%

Household with PPP +$15000pa

5 790 000 = 45%

Household with PPP -$5000 pa

1 900 000 = 15%

Aid 1998

3.781 billion $

Foreign investment 1999

0.760 billion $

Tourist revenue 1998

7.809 billion $

Division of the GDP by activity sector :
Agriculture : 17.6%
Industry : 16.1%
Mining : 9.4%
Services : 57.0%

Agriculture Essentially orientated towards the domestic market, Turkish agriculture has a large and diversified production : wheat, barley, olives and tea for example are produced for the consumer market. Tobacco and cotton feed the industrial market.
The economic significance of agriculture is still considerable because it employs nearly 40% of the labour force. However it is not very profitable and only manages to continue with heavy State subsidizing.

Industries & mining Important needs in infrastructure, growth in the tourist sector and the rapid industrialization founded on the growth of sectors of processing industries like foodstuffs, textiles and cars, mean that the markets for equipment and facilities are also growing. More precisely, in the following domains : electricity, textiles, car manufacturing, foodstuffs and hotels and restaurants.

Turkish industry also represents an important market for prime materials and semi-finished products, particularly for chemical and iron and steel products as well as in certain specialized sectors (leather, skins, yarns, material).

Textiles remains the main industrial sector, but car manufacturing is increasing and the foodstuff sector is very dynamic.

A stabilizing programme, started in 1999, was set up to organize a more stable environment : Turkish private industrials are active, but the country still doesn't have enough foreign investment to help it to modernize its production on a big enough scale.

In 2001 the serious energy problems that Turkey has been going through should improve. The pumping of Iranian gas will start in July in spite of American objections. Azerbaidjan and Georgia should start sharing their excess electricity with Turkey before the end of the year.

Other sectors
France is Turkey's fourth biggest trade partner. French exports are made up of over 90% industrial goods with high added value. The strong presence of three French car manufacturers, especially Renault, which is the biggest foreign investor in Turkey in any sector, makes up most of this movement, as well as sales of distribution materials and electrical controls, refined petrol products, chemical products for industrial use and electronic components.
The telecommunications sector is one of the most flourishing, due to the developement of the mobile phone. On the other hand, the country is still behind in Internet users.

Population : 63,451,000, the total population density is 82 inhabitants per km2.
There are over ten million inhabitants in Istanbul.

Population breakdown :
0-14 year olds : 29.53%
15-64 year olds : 65%
65 years and over : 5.47%

Working age population (15-65 ) : 41 million, of which 30 million are working (55% in industry and services).

Life expectancy : 69.26 years
Urban population : 72.86%

Level of Developement (latest available statistics)
demographic growth 1997-2015 (%) : +1.2
infant mortality (%) : 4
energy consumption per capita TOE : 1.05
population without drinking water (% pop) : 51
population without sanitary installations (% pop) : 20
n° of doctors per 1000 inhabitants : 1.1
telephone lines per 1000 inhabitants : 250
mobile telephones per 1000 inhabitants : 26
private cars per 1000 inhabitants : 59
n° of computers per 1000 inhabitants : 20.7
adult illiteracy (%) : 17
secondary schooling/age group (%) : 56
graduates/age group (%) : 18

Ethnic composition :
- 80% Turks,
- 20% Kurds

The minorities are all sources of conflict, whether they are Kurdish or Armenians on Turkish territory or Turks living in Bulgaria or Cypris.


Language Turkish, Kurdish, Arab.
For business, English and German are currently spoken.

Historically Turkey was the core of the Ottoman Empire and several populations speak Turkish all over the East. Turkish is spoken by 150 million people in the world.

The main religion is Islam.
Sunnites Muslims : 99.8%
Christians : 0.2%

Weights, measures & voltage
The metric system is in use. Electricity : 220 volts with European style plugs.

1 Turkish pound (TRL) = 0.00001 French francs
1 franc = 137,380 Turkish pounds
1 euro = 972,210 Turkish pounds

International credit cards : Visa, American Express and Mastercard are accepted in the larger towns.

Exchange regulations
There is no limit to profits, invested capital and eventual appreciations being repatriated. Transfering money presents no difficulties. The pound is convertible and there is no exchange control.

Main towns Ankara (Ancyre) : The capital : museum of Anatolian civilizations, tomb of Ataturk (1881-1938) the founder of modern Turkey.

Istanbul (Constantinople) : Ancient Byzantine and Ottoman capital, Istanbul is build on the west bank of the Bosphorus, on a detroit which separates Europe from Asia. The city is also cut in half by a small sea inlet, the Golden Horn.

Bursa (Brousse) : Green city, the hometown of Karaguz, the Turkish 'Punch'. A spa which was the capital for a while, with the tombs of sultans and gardens : Green mausoleum, Osman's mausoleum (founder of the Osman Empire 1281-1923).

Izmir (Smyrne) : Opulant and haughty, to the south and the north of the town stretches the 2800 kms of the Aegean coast. Beautiful synagogue, gymnasium bounded by the River Pactole.

Climate The climate is temperate, mild and Mediterranean. The best seasons to visit Turkey are spring and autumn as summer is often too hot, especially on the high plateau in the interior. Winter is cold and it snows in the centre of the country and freezes in the east.

Average temperatures (max/min) :

..................................J ........F .......M .......A .........M ..........J ...........J ..........A ...........S ..........O ........N ........D

Istanbul ................8/3 ....9/2 .....11/3 ....16/7 ....21/12 ...25/16 ...28/18 ....28/19 ....24/16 ...20/13 ...15/9 ....11/5

Trabz1....................1/5 ...10/4 ....12/5 ....15/8 ....19/13 ...23/17 ...26/20 ....26/20 ....23/17 ...20/14 ..17/10 ...13/7

Ankara (900m) ....4/-4 ....5/-3 ....11/0 ....17/4 ....22/9 ....27/13 ....30/15 ....30/15 ....26/11 ....20/7 ....13/3 ....6/-1

Insects & animals Scorpions. Mosquitoes from March to November, which are very active after nightfall. They are more numerous on the south coast and in the centre of the country.

15 - Working in the country
Before leaving
You should take Turkish lessons, or improve your level. The quality of job you would like to have may depend on how well you speak the language.

With a French or international company
If your employer is a French or international company you don't have to worry about formalities. Usually the administrative services deal with all the formalities concerning the expatriate staff. Unless you are the only representative of your company in the country (sales representative, or in charge of a liaising office ...), in this case you will have to deal with the formalities yourself.

Preparing for your departure and looking for a job :
You can start searching for information by writing to French associations established in the country, economic expansion services, commercial services of foreign banks in France and French banks abroad.
The French consulate usually has a service dealing with jobs and training, student grants and reinsertion in France, and they can put you in touch with local enterprises who are willing to accept French personnel.
 (See also in the Practical Guide for the Expatriate).

The French Chamber of Commerce also offers information about the job market, the most dynamic sectors of the economy, and edits a bulletin for French companies and local members. You could publish a job application in this bulletin.

The Trade Commission in Turkey, or the CFCE in Paris can furnish you with a list of French companies established in Turkey.

Documents about the country are usually available in the cultural service of the Turkish Embassy in Paris.

You can however prepare your trip in a more precise manner by making a personal appointment with the Franco-Turkish Chamber of Commerce in order to complete your information and get professional advice.

While you are hunting for information you could contact companies directly by sending a spontaneous candidacy proposing your services.

The international departments of the Chambers of Commerce and Industry often have information about the country available. Directories and useful dossiers from the country can be helpful in getting information on sectors of activity and the local economic life.

Where to find job offers :
In the French press (Le Monde, Le France Soir, Figaro, Moniteur du Bâtiment,...) for French companies sending people abroad.

In the international press, in nearly all the bigger dailies there exists a page or a selection of job offers (The European, The Guardian, Vacature, Coriere della Sera, The Geneva Tribunal ..)

Leading recruitment bureaus in Europe, and interim companies sometimes offer international jobs.

There are several data banks specializing in job offers abroad on Internet which are easily accessible.

Writing your CV and covering letter :
Your dossier is a determining element towards being recruited, it is the first step towards obtaining an interview.

The CV should be very clear, typewritten, detailled, preferably written in English and it should be accompanied by a handwritten covering letter. Certain countries do not accord much importance to handwriting, but it is advisable to write the letter by hand whichever country it is addressed to.

If the company is French or the subsidiary of a French company, the CV and the covering letter should still be written in the language of the country.

Don't forget to attach a recent photo, preferably one where you are smiling.

Your CV should be detailled, and have the addresses and phone numbers of ex-employers on it so that the company can easily verify the main points of your candidacy. This can save you from sending a pile of photocopies and documents with it. You can always present these documents later during an interview if necessary.

If you are thinking of sending a false CV, you should know that a study from the Florian Mantione Institute shows that 45% of the employers check up on CVs, that 34% of the candidates are eliminated during this verification and that 60% of the verifications are made with the previous employer.
Whatever your reasons for 'adapting' your CV to suit the ad, be warned that it won't help you during the interview and could even cause you prejudice.

The questions to ask yourself before an expatriation :
What exactly is the job?
What is the length of the contract?
Is it for the whole family or with bachelor conditions?
What kind of life will you have locally?
Have you thought about when you get back, how you will manage financially to fit in again?
Do you have the necessaries qualities to be an expatriate?

Qualities you need to succeed :
emotional stability (so you can react quickly in any situation)
autonomy (you can make decisions on your own in any circumstance)
being mobile and being available for your job, being able to relocate quickly
being good at meeting people (don't forget that the expatriate is also an ambassador for his country whether in his professional or his social life.
being adaptable (you can easily adapt to different cultures, climates and life styles. )
being able to accept and understand different cultures and cultural differences
tolerance and respect of other people's way of life and way of living should be a natural part of your character.

Your family and recruiting :
Your partner should have the same ambitions as you. It is often an important factor in choosing an expatriate.
In fact some recruitment bureaus or big firms when they are recruiting, specially for long term projects, insist on having an interview with the wife to check that there are no problems in the couple which could get worse abroad and maybe disturb the mission.
Companies often propose that the whole family goes together so that a good family balance is kept.

During the recruiting :
Punctuality and precision are appreciated everywhere. Be on time for your appointments.

Be well dressed for your interview, whatever kind of job you are trying for. Your appearance will weigh with the interviewer.

First interviews are often very short but can last several hours if your candidacy is interesting, depending on the post offered, and if you have to do any psychotechnical (graphological analysis) or aptitude tests.

Be careful not to appear pretentious about your know-how and don't exaggerate your professional competence.

Don't forget that nowadays the job market is a chronic problem nearly all over the world, so take an interview appointment seriously, jobs are not easy to come by.

Emphasize your real competence, your ease of adaption, your mobility, your ability to work in a team, your readiness to pool your experience.

The company and the expatriate :
A lot of countries abroad like to have, and to show that they have, expatriates on their staff.
International personnel often bring in experience and knowledge which can be very advantageous for a company.

Salaries - Salary requirements :
If the candidate doesn't know the prospective country, it isn't always easy to negotiate a salary, especially if the amount has already been mentionned on the ad.
However, there is nothing to stop you from showing your previous salary and from discussing the salary offered. The recruiting agent or the employer may appreciate knowing what for you is the minimum.
The standard of living that you find abroad is not always similar to the one you know in your own country and sometimes if the salary is much higher you will find that the cost of living is also.
This is one of the reasons, and there are several, including social security conditions, why it is better to go abroad with a French company.
French companies sending people overseas budget for differences in the cost of living. They can reassure the expatriate that his purchasing power will at least be the same as in France.
The 'basic French salary' can be paid either in France or abroad, it is usually a choice, and an allowance is paid for living expenses (accomodation, food,...) This compensation is based on the cost of living in the country.

(see the page in the expatriate guide)
If you are employed locally you will have to pay taxes in the country.
If you have an international contract your salary can be negotiated free of taxes.
In some countries income tax is deducted at source by the company.

Accomodation - company car - other fringe benefits :
It is nearly impossible to negotiate for a company house if you are employed locally. Getting a car depends on your job and your level in the company.
In a local company it will be very difficult to negotiate a paid return ticket to France every year.
There again, if you are an expatriate working for a French company you will get fringe benefits, a house, car, travel allowance, return flights to France ...
Usually international contracts give 15 days leave in France every 3 months.

Working conditions :
These are the local ones with all the attenuating advantages and disadvantages if you are working for a local company.
The expatriate is often considered as an immigrant and has to deal himself with the local formalities.

On the administrative side the expatriate does not have to worry about the formalities concerning the police, customs, immigration, income tax, visa or consular declaration. French or European companies abroad always have an administrative department which completes all the formalities for its personnel and deals with any problems which could arise.
Foreign companies remain subject to the laws of the country in which they are working.

Attitude towards the foreign investor :
All foreign investment, as well as all transfer of technologies should be the object of an authorization from the General Direction of Foreign Capital of the Under-secretary of the State Treasury. There is no sector-related restriction. All the sectors are open to foreign capital and the administrative steps are fairly easy. The foreign investor can choose between an agency, creating a subsidiary in the form of a SA or a Ltd company, or take shares in a Turkish company which already exists. The amount invested cannot be less than 50,000 dollars. There is no limit to the percentage of foreign shareholding.

Import - export
It is strongly advisable to work with a letter of credit when you first start business with a new client. It is preferable to work through a foreign bank or a major Turkish bank, but Turkish companies usually want to work with their own bank. Letters of credit, realizable by acceptance are the most used. However, this type of payment is expensive, so payment against documents or against merchandise is often prefered. It nevertheless involves more risk for the exporter, and this kind of payment is recommended once a business relationship has been well established.

Payment on delivery is not done in Turkey. Your identity card is sufficient for a stay of up to three months. Longer than that you will need to get a residents permit from one of the central police stations or the Office for Foreigners.
If you drive to Turkey you will need to have a valid passport with you.
A visa is not necessary.
In the east of the country : entry to certain zones of Turkey which are not tourist zones and which are controlled by the army, are forbidden.

The products are imported for 80% of the country's health needs, making this a centre of international competition. The health system is run by the State, so the main equipment buyers are hospitals.
Vaccinations : nothing is obligatory
It is advisable to drink bottled water, checking that the caps are sealed.

By plane : from Paris flight time is 3 hours to Istanbul, Izmir, Dalaman and Antalya. Count on 4 hours for Ankara.
There are about 40 regular or charter flights from France a week.
Air France or Turkish Airlines
Istanbul Airlines have flights Paris/Istanbul every Thursday and Sunday. (tel 01 42 46 00 89)

The tour operators which specialize in Turkey are Maxi (01 43 12 85 85), Marmara and Pacha Tours.

By rail or road : since the war in Yugoslavia, the rail and road distances are long and the travelling slow.
By boat : boats are not frequent and tend to be overloaded from Greece or Italy.

Internal transport :
Plane : internal flights are very cheap. Be careful : the arrivals and departures board is marked in Turkish.
Bus, Trams or underground : All these are operational in Istanbul.
Trains : The railway network is being renovated. There will soon be a TGV between Istanbul and Ankara.

Coaches, collective taxis : The coaches with their varying degrees of comfort, are more practical on the main road axes than the train. Collective taxis are little buses with a lantern 'dolmus' which go around the villages on a fixed itinerary. They drop you off wherever you want. They only go though when they are full.

Cars/Taxis : You should preferably reserve your rented car from France. Like that you are sure to have a choice. The best means of transport in Istanbul is the taxi.

Others : To cross the Dardanelles take a ferry at Gallipoli (every 2 hours) or at Canakkale (every hour). Between Istanbul and Izmir there also exists stops (during the high season) at the main sea resorts.
The road network has greatly improved since 1994. The best road maps are the ones from the Tourist Office which are more often up-to-date than others (they are quickly out of date), but be careful as they have very few details. Take both kind of maps with you.
Traffic is very dense in Istanbul, there are constant traffic jams.

Time differences
Time difference with France : + 1 hour all year round

You can telephone from the post office using tokens or a meter system. These "centres of Turkish life" are often open at night.
To phone Turkey from France : Dial 00 90 + the town code + n° of your correspondent
Ankara : 312
Istanbul : 212 (western bank) or 216 (eastern bank)
To phone France from Turkey : dial 00 33+
It costs less to phone France from Turkey than vice versa.

Istanbul : the Mustafa Kemal Ataturk airport is 20 kms out of town. It takes between 30 and 45 minutes to get there depending on the traffic
Ankara : the airport is 30 kms out of town
The price of a taxi to town is 145 FF

The airport tax is not included in the price of the airticket. It costs about 220 FF.

Car rental
It is necessary to have your driving licence and your credit card to rent a car.

Avis is represented in all the main towns in Turkey
Telephone n° of the central reservation office : 20 216 454 1111
Some other agencies
Adana : 322 4350476/322 4533045
Ankara : airport : 312 3980315, town 312 4672313/14
Antalya : airport 242 3303073/08, town 242 2481772/73
Bodrum : 252 3162333,airport 252 5230201/1542
Istanbul : 212 2412917, 216 4918701/02, airport 212 6620852/212 6630646
Izmir : airport 232 2742172/74, 0232 3422020
Marmaris : 256 6144600

All Avis cars are completely equipped, have done less than 15,000 kms and have an average age of 3 months. The vehicles are carefully prepared and checked between each rental using a procedure containing 7 obligatory control points. The cars are rented with a full tank.
Renting from Avis automatically means that the car passengers, renter and/or driver are covered by a third party insurance as well as an insurance covering repatriation and the immobilization of the vehicule in case of an accident.

You can reserve a car :
- from your travel agent
- from the international reservation centre at 0 820 05 05 05
- or from any Avis agency
Avis has an interactive network worldwide, a client can reserve a car instantly from anywhere in the world.

We recommend that you pay your rental using your accredited Avis card or with another credit card accepted by Avis : American Express, Visa, Mastercard, Diners.
Through a simple free membership system, Avis gives identity and/or payment cards, which are a real help for a rapid and efficient service.

REASSURING : No on-line payment, you can pay Avis directly at the agency when you return the car
RAPID : Avis has the quickest car rental reservation service on the web
ECONOMICAL : The cheapest rates on the market are available on the Avis microsite
COMPLETE : You can rent a car anywhere in the world.
The Avis network : 5000 agencies in 172 countries, is now on-line!
EFFICIENT : Find your town (you don't have to fill in the country), enter the date and click on estimate
PRACTICAL : You only have to fill in 4 boxes and you will receive an e-mail confirming the reservation.
You can even rent a vehicle at the last minute just round the corner or ... on the other side of the world.

Hotels & restaurants
Istanbul has a large range of hotels and palaces which are excellent value for money.

- Sheraton Towers : 427 rooms, of which 18 are suites, top luxury with a view on the Bosphorus

- Renaissance : 390 elegant rooms of which 29 are suites

- Four Seasons : tel 00 90 212 638 82 00, near the Blue Mosque, Sainte Sofia and the Topkapi Palace

- Swisshotel The Bosphorus : tel 00 90 212 259 61 01

- Celal Sultan : Tel 00 90 212 520 93 23

- Hyatt : 00 90 212 225 70 00

- Pera Palas : tel 00 90 212 251 45 60

- Turkuaz : tel 212 518 18 07 pretty 19th century house with a garden and an Ottoman well

- Kybele : tel 212 511 77 66 an ancient yali (house of a wealthy citizen)

- Empress Zoe : tel 212 518 25 04 hotel made in an ancient reservoir next to the Cagologlu hammam.


- Sheraton : tel 00 90 312 468 54 54

- Hilton : tel 00 90 312 468 28 88


- Otel Huma : 27 rooms, of which 3 are suites


- Kervansaray Termal : 211 rooms with 3 suites

Restaurants :
Eat in the meyhane (taverns)Cicek Pasaji et Balik Pasaji, in the Flower passage, opposite the Galatasaray school. Both specialize in traditional cooking.
Haci Baba restaurant : specialities which are always attractively presented, delicious desserts and a pleasant terrace. Istiklal Cad 49.

Your suitcase
Take a suit and tie for business meetings and chic restaurants.
Light clothing for June - September, a sweater for the evening.
Don't wear provocative clothing : shorts or low-cut dresses. To visit a mosque, both men and women have to cover their legs and shoulders and take off their shoes.
Winter is cold and rainy.

Public Holidays :
1st January : New Year
23rd April : Childrens' Day
30th August : Victory Day
29th October : Republic Day (declaration of the republic, 29th October 1923).
7th November : Constitution Day (1982).
Also religious Muslim holidays, Ramadan.

Opening times :
Opening hours of local administrations in Ankara : 8h30 to 12h30 and 13h30 to 17h
in Istanbul : 9h to 18h
Opening hours of companies in Ankara : 9h to12h30 and 14h to 18h
in Istanbul : 9h to 18h

Security :

You should be careful, there is a certain level of political violence
Don't accept any package without having inspected the contents, you could risk getting mixed up in a drug traffic.

The hotels and the casinos give a third more than the banks which are not in a hurry to keep their rates up to date as they fluctuate at an amazing speed. The best place to change money is in the exchange bureaus.
There are more and more cash distributors.
Banks are open from 8h30 to 12h and 13h30 to 17h from Monday to Friday.
No French bank has an agency in Ankara or Istanbul.

Banque du Bosphore
8 rue Euler
75008 Paris
Tel 01 56 89 90 90 Fax 01 47 20 02 36

There are several schools in the country.
- Guide Bleu.
- Guide Michelin.
- Guides Turquie (collection Petite Planète).
- Discovery Guide to Eastern Turkey and the Black Sea Coast (from Michael Haag Limited, PO Box 369, London NW3 4DP, England).

- Aziyadé, Fantôme d'Orient et les Désenchantées by Pierre Loti
- Si j'oublie Constantinople by A Londres

Businss : (in French)
- Exporter : coll. "L'Essentiel d'un marché", CFC3 2000
- Kompass Turquie : KOTUR2000
-Annuaire des implantations françaises : French Trade Commission in Istanbul Ref E14999-99L (170 addresses)
- Les procédures d'importations et le transport international : French Trade Commission in Istanbul, Ref A9900031A
- Annuaire des 100 premières entreprises industrielles du secteur agroalimentaire : French Trade Commission in Istanbul, Ref A10783-99L


The best way to go into the town is by the Bosphorus, preferably with a dolmus (sea taxi).
If you apply to the foundation which manages the restoring of the yali, these ancient summer residences of the Ottoman empire notables, built in pine or in oak wood, you can visit the most sumptuous ones : the Kibrisli yali, the Ostrorog yali where Pierre Loti slept, the Sadullah yali where the interior is as beautiful as the most beautiful harems.
In the cafés which edge the roads old men sit behind their glasses of rosemary or mint tea playing at cards, with their jackets hanging above their heads, holding the end between their gold teeth they suck on their hookahs which are filled with their favourite mixture : jurak or tombak. Time stands still.
In the mahalli hamam (the local baths) the men put themselves in the hands of the giants on duty who knead them with a dry glove on the warm marble slabs and then wash them down with cold water. It is in the steam of the hammam that tongues loosen and real conversation takes place.
Visit the mosques, the Topkapi palace museum, the blue mosque, the only one with six minarets, which was built in the beginning of the 17th century by the famous architect Sinan.
Foça (Phocea). The birth place of the founders of Marseilles. The vestiges of Troy are only a few kilometers away.

Kusadasi. Known for its Club Med which is near the antique sites of Ephese, Priene, Milet, the temple of Didymes (oracle of Apollo). Lovely hotels.

Marmaris. Beautiful beaches of Belek, Kas, Jemer on the Lycian coast

Antalya (Attaleia). Minaret, Hadrien's door, ramparts.

Side and Alanya. To the east of Antalya, a fortified town built in the centre of Hellenistic ruins, superb museum.

Silikfe (Seleucie). Interesting excursions to the citadel of Seleucia, the abyss of Hell (Cehennen) and of Paradise (Cennet), the ruins of Kanlidivani, the sea castles of Anamur, Corycos and Kizkalesi, the port of Mersin.

Tarse (Tarsus); Adana and Antakya (Antioche). Pilgrimage site of the voyages of Saint Paul. In Tarse: the church of the Kings of Armenia, which has become a mosque. Adana is the region of the castles of Cilicia. Antakya has one of the most beautiful mosaic museums in the world.

Pamukkale (Hierapolis) : tourist region
Konya (Iconium) : tourist region of the Egridir Lake.
Cappadocia : a very popular tourist region : Church of Tokali, underground cities
Edirne (Andrinople) and Turkish Thrace : Mosque of Edirne, the imperial mosque built by the same architect as the Blue mosque in Istanbul, battle fields of the Dardanelles between Gallipoli and Smyrne.

Trabzon (Trebizonde) and the Black Sea. Port forming a trio with Sinop and Samsun, traffic with Odessa.
Ski runs on the Uludag, the byzantine walls at Nicea (Iznik)
(see also "Main Towns")
Shopping :
Handicrafts : carpets, jewellery, copper objects, ceramics, leather

Useful Addresses

Useful Addresses in France

Turkish Embassy
16, avenue de Lamballe
75016 Paris
Tel 01 45 25 29 63

Turkish Tourist Office
102, avenue des Champs-Elysées
75008 Paris
Tel. : 01 45 62 78 68

La maison de la Turquie
8, Boudreau 75009 Paris
Tel. : 01 42 80 04 74

Useful Addresses in Turkey

French Embassy in Ankara
Tel 00 90 312 468 11 54

French Consulate in Istanbul
Tel 00 90 212 293 24 60

French Trade Commission in Ankara
Turan emeksiz Sok, n° 3
B/10 Gaziosmanpasa
06700 Ankara
Tel 00 90 312 428 3175-78 Fax 00 90 312 4682439
Internet :
e-mail :

French Trade Commission in Istanbul
Odakule Is Merkezi
Istiklal Cad. n° 284-288
80072 Beyoglu
Tel 00 90 212 2435338 Fax 00 90 212 2492658


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